The reforming, administrative and financial technology of the institutions
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A key issue on achieving sustainability and sustainable development is through administrative reforms. This chapter starts with a general overview of administrative reforms, its role and experiments worldwide. Subsequently, the chapter addresses the early attempts to reform administration in India from post-independence to recent reforms driven by globalization and influence of information and communication technologies ICT in administration e-governance.
It is noted that the emergence of New Public Management NPM and the need for economic efficiency in governance through privatisation although has spearheaded administrative reforms, it is the innovations and best practices either initiated by the local administration decentralization or the civic society that has made these successful.
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Identifying the successful innovations and best practices while addressing the issues of sustainability and replicating these in different instances are difficult since most of these practices and innovations are context specific. The first chapter by Mohit Bhattacharya presents the decentralizing experiment in the Kolkata Municipal Corporation through borough and ward committees. The decentralized system headed by a Mayor of the council has come in place of a central command, paving the way to a more participatory approach. In spite of these, the exercises have not been fully successful due to lesser autonomous and executive powers at the ward or borough levels, and limited financial independence.
However, it is noted that this experiment can become a role model for many other large municipal corporations by providing greater autonomy at the ward level with scope for revenue mobilization and thereby reducing the dependency on funds from the central agency. The second chapter by Jennifer Jalal presents the comparison of good practices in public sector reforms that have taken place in Bangalore and Kolkata due to administrative reforms through participation of private sector, non-governmental organizations and public. In the case of Bangalore, the state had mooted the Bangalore Agenda Task Force, which acted as an interface for synergizing the efforts undertaken by different stakeholders involving the different state-run service organizations, the public and the private enterprises.
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Contrary to this, Kolkata continued the centralized administration without significant reforms while adopting the ICT and rightsizing to increase efficiency and bring transparency, productivity and accountability in the system. Further, this chapter explains the good practices for reforms initiated by the civil society and the public—private collaborations. The next chapter on urban— local governance reforms in the American cities by Vidu Soni discusses the need for empowerment of frontline employees and lists the likely obstacles while implementing in developing countries that requires an appropriate combination of bottom-up and top-down reform initiatives in best practices.
The fourth chapter by Daljit Singh addresses the lessons learnt in the regulation of Indian power sector through Electricity Regulatory Commissions ERC while providing an account of the performance evaluation of these regulatory commissions based on the operational independence, functional independence, accountability and the consumer participation. The chapter notes the need for interactions between regulators and the government and government-owned utilities. The subsequent chapter by Sudha Mahalingam discusses the regulatory experiments in the power sector with an overview of the power sector reforms and the creation of the ERCs.
About ten provinces or cities across the country are expected to follow suit after August This reform was implemented for several reasons. One was to eliminate the double levying of business taxes. Seventh, in response to the global financial crisis, the central government implemented structural, macroeconomic tax reductions and selectively reduced the tax burden by half on small and medium enterprises in Also, the income tax threshold on small and micro businesses was raised from to Yuan to 20, Yuan in the second half of Eighth, the central government passed a number of laws and regulations in the realm of tax collection and administration in , such as the New Law of the Administration of Tax Collection.
These measures were intended to strengthen taxation, improve normalization and promote continuous tax revenue growth. The system highlighted in the document calls for, graded management, classified compilation and gradual implementation. It will also be an important advancement in establishing a dual budget system under the public treasury umbrella.
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After , a system has been enacted whereby large state-owned enterprises deliver a certain proportion of their annual return on assets to the state treasury. This system will be optimized in the future. The new law has gone into effect across the country since January 1, Pre-tax deduction standards and tax preferences have also been unified. This ended the era of separate taxation standards for domestic and foreign enterprises. Since the 16th CPC National Congress, the supervision of public finances has been made more scientific and meticulous, and financial operations more standardized.
Second, governments have continuously standardized budget management, established budget compilation workflow mechanisms, and constantly improved dynamic budgets. The central budget stabilization fund was established in , subject to the oversight of the NPC, to make public finances more transparent and make the oversight of public finances more scientific. In , reforms to state-owned capital operations budgets were implemented to promote the reform of state-owned enterprises and the development and standardization of the dual budget system. Reforms to the classification of government revenue and expenditures were also deepened in , and government revenue classifications were unified.
A new functional classification system for government expenditures and a new economic classification system for expenditures were established to reflect various concrete government revenue items and the contents and recipients of expenditures. This was done to change the situation in which outsiders cannot evaluate government finances, and to create favorable conditions to improve transparency and strengthen budget oversight.
Third, financial supervision mechanisms have been gradually improved. In addition to maintaining the dual system of pre-auditing, continuous monitoring, and post-examination, governments have made efforts to increase supervision, strictly investigate and prosecute financial crimes and preliminarily establish financial supervision mechanisms to implement monitoring, comprehensive inspection, rectification and feedback, and tracking performance.
Fourth, the construction of financial management information systems has been steadily advanced. The budget management system, the centralized treasury payment management information system and other e-business systems have been successfully developed and put into use.
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Databases for budget compilation, centralized payment, asset management and wage payment of administrative institutions have been established. Financial oversight has been improved continuously. Fifth, the performance appraisal of budget management has been actively promoted. Objective-based performance management, third-party assessment, full performance supervision, performance budget of key projects, and others have been developed to improve the comprehensive benefits of public funds.
Sixth, efforts have been made to make government budgets and final accounts more open and budgetary work more transparent. First of all, more detailed departmental budgets and final accounts will be made available to the public. There will be more openness of budget information at and below the provincial level, as per central-level directives. Seventh, international exchanges and cooperation and strategic dialog and policy coordination have all been strengthened at the center. Since the 16th CPC National Congress, the global economy has gradually recovered and the Chinese government began a policy of actively stimulating the economy.
However, the problems of excessive investment and redundant construction began to pop up in some industries and regions. That was an indication that it would no longer be appropriate to continue to implement proactive fiscal policies that had been in place since The Central Committee looked into current economic conditions and began to study the idea of revamping fiscal policy in In , the Committee began to implement prudent fiscal policy characterized by controlling deficits, adjusting structures, promoting reform, increasing revenues, and reducing expenditures.
Since the Reform and Opening Up, the Chinese government has adopted a variety of policy instruments to exert macro-control over economic operations and has gradually established a financial control mechanism characterized by coordinated budgets, taxes, subsidies on interest payments, government bonds, transfer payments, tax rebates on exporters, and other actions aimed to promote structural optimization and healthy, rapid economic development.
In the fourth quarter of , in the face of the global financial crisis triggered by the American subprime crisis, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council decided to change macro-policy. They again established a proactive, expansionary financial policy and pushed out a government stimulus package of four trillion yuan. These measures coupled with new monetary policies and other methods helped the national economy stabilize and recover after the second quarter of They do so to strengthen and optimize pre-emptive adjustments and fine-tuning to policy, thus making progress while maintaining stability, all in order to promote the healthy, rapid development of the national economy.
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Since the 16th CPC National Congress, macro-control achieved through management of public finance has brought about four significant shifts: the shift from passive to active regulation, the shift from direct to indirect regulation, the shift from regulation by a single means to regulation by a combination of means, and the shift from regulating businesses and individuals toward regulating market variables. These shifts indicate that China has established a financial macro-control system that includes many elements, such as target selection, combined means, timing, organization, and implementation.
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This system basically meets the needs of different economic operation patterns under the market economy. This implies a fundamental change in the social value orientation of the contemporary Chinese government. These are issues that concern the majority of Chinese citizens, and public finances should be used for the benefit of all citizens. The government should give strong support to resolve basic livelihood issues with the financial resources available to them.
This is the most basic requirement of the Scientific Outlook on Development: to promote social equality and to build a socialist harmonious society. Now and in the future, the main task for the financial system in China will be to increase investment in employment, social security, public health, compulsory education, low-income housing, and various social undertakings. Their goal should be to adjust income distribution across the levels of administration and bring about equal distribution of public services.
More stress has been laid on the reasonable division of duties among the various levels of government. The central government will introduce a taxation system in which revenue will be divided reasonably based on the duties of the various levels of government. There has been serious research conducted into the reform of the financial system below the provincial level, and some valuable suggestions have been put forward.
Duties and financial privileges should be allocated corresponding to the level of a government, and duties should be proportionate to financial powers. Governments should be given authority to set tax levels and compile budgets according to their level. Furthermore, governments should be given property rights and debt financing powers corresponding to their level.
According to the above principle, a long-term mechanism for tax revenue sharing should be established at the central level, the provincial level, and the municipal and county level. At the same time, the central government should implement reasonable, effective, top-to-bottom central-level and provincial-level transfer payments in order to make financial resources proportionate to duties and responsibilities, especially in the provision of basic public services in less developed areas.
Steps should be taken to correct the biased and short-sighted funding of local governments through land transfers and to defuse risks of hidden debt in local governments. A strong financial and taxation system should be established to bring about a great national revival and the long-lasting stability of China. Correspondence to Kang Jia. Reprints and Permissions. Search all SpringerOpen articles Search. Abstract In November , the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed a blueprint of building a comprehensive well-off society in an all-round way in Additional information Competing interests The author declares that there is no competing interests.