Plant Stress And Biotechnology
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Extensive DNA microarray experiments, the genome wide mapping of protein-protein interactions, and the comprehensive phenotypic characterization of mutants for all transcription-factor genes will then be necessary [13,18]. The plethora of data generated must be correlated and integrated.
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Finally, the practical application of transcription factor in agricultural and environmental biotechnology will be depend on the genetic engineering of these genes in economically important plant species . Our recently established transformation system will speed the application of these transcription factors in pine . Adaeze Okoye. Hubert Chia, and Zalak Daftary, for their work in isolating mature embryos from seeds for callus induction.
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Kasuga, M. Shi, H. Tang, W. Tang, W.. Newton, R. Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou. Jishou University. Jishou Beijing People's Republic of China Introduction In commerce, seeds are subjected to varying degrees of water and temperature stresses during development, maturation, harvest, and storage in seed production and distribution, and then during imbibition and germination following sowing.
Only those seeds which have high vigor best able to cope with these conditiolls and are capable of rapid germination and establishment of healthy seedlings, which are essential for efficient crop production. Seed deterioration leads to reductions in seed quality, performance, and seedling establishment.
While it is difficult to quantify the economic loss caused by poor seed performance, one estimate has been suggested that it is million dollars annually just for purchased seed. Thus It is important that a fundamental understanding of the processes of seed deterioration be gained [ Seed deterioration is due in part to the reason of membrane lipid peroxidation and leakiness caused by reactive oxygen species ROS attacking [3, 29], including surperoxide radical '0 2- , hydrogen peroxide HoO, , hydroxyl radical 'Ot-I and other organic radical [ At the cellular level, the excess production of ROS causes cell death [ Cell death can be divided into two types, necrotic and programmed cell death PC D , both can be induced by the ROS [ Changes in protein structure and nucleic acid damage can also attribute to ROS attacking , therefore chromosomal mutation accumulates and the onset of mitosis for cell division and germination delay.
The loss in seed viability during storage is a gradually process. Water content of the seeds and storage temperature are major factors in determining seed viability during storage . Accelerated ageing of seeds, seed lot was exposed to high temperature and high relative humidity RH , leads to the loss of vigor and eventually viability, and is an excellent method to determine the vigor changes during seed storage. In this paper, soybean seeds were used as experimental materials, accelerated ageing of seeds was used to simulate or to substitute the natural ageing, relationships among seed vigor, cell death, and production and scavenging of ROS during accelerated ageing were studied, and a model to explain above-mentioned relationships was suggested based on our research results.
Thirty seeds were sampled for each determination. Water content of seeds is expressed on a dry mass basis [g Hp g dry mass -I; gig]. Seeds showing radicle emergence were scored as germinated. Fresh weight of seedlings produced by germinating seeds does not include cotyledons. Viability Stain The cross and near-median longitudinal sections of soybean radicle approximately 3 mm thick were stained in 0. Stained sections were rinsed in deionised water for 30 min, and photographed with Kodak MAX film on the Olympus stereomicroscope. Measurement of Respiratory Rate Respiratory rate of single seed was measured according to the method of Xue .
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Volume of the reaction bottle was determined by the weight of mercury Hg that contained. Determination of Superoxide Radical and Hydrogen Peroxide Superoxide radical was measured as described by Elstner and Heupei  by monitoring the nitrite formation from hydroxylamine in the presence of superoxide radical, modified as follows. Axes about 0.