NMR: Tomography, Diffusometry, Relaxometry
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These features were found to have consequences for the phase behavior in water and in ternary mixtures with water and n-alcohols for the two complex salts, which differed compared to complex salts containing homo- or copolyions with only carboxylate or styrene sulfonate charged groups.
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For both complex salts, binary mixtures with water produced, in the dilute region, two isotropic phases in equilibrium, the bottom concentrated one displaying increasing viscosity with increasing concentration. In both cases, concentrations above ca. For ternary mixtures with n-alcohols, the general trend was that a short-chain alcohol such as n-butanol acted as a cosolvent dissolving the aggregates, whereas with n-decanol, a cosurfactant effect was observed, inducing the formation of lamellar phases.
Visual inspection also between crossed polarizers , small angle X-ray scattering SAXS and diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance NMR were used in these studies. Journal Of Physical Chemistry B.
- Canadian Journal of Plant Science.
- Using Samba;
- Nmr: Tomography, Diffusometry, Relaxometry?
American Chemical Society, v. Thalberg, K. Faul, C. Bronich, T. Svensson, A. B, , pp. Norrman, J. Korb, R. Denoyel, R. Bouchet, P.
Levitz, Eur. Special Topics , —  H. Petit, J-P. Denoyel, P. Ulm, H. Jennings, R Pellenq ed. Barberon, J. Korb, D. Morin, E. Bermenjo, Phys. Lett 90, Jump to Navigation. We hope this work will encourage these scientists to consider MRI as a useful imaging tool for studying these and other phenomena in plants. The authors thank Dr. Guy Bernard and other members of the solid-state NMR group at the University of Alberta for helpful discussions and comments.
MW thanks the University of Alberta for funding. We also thank Dr. Uwe Hacke for bringing about our collaboration and for consultation and encouragement during all phases of research and writing. Finally, we acknowledge the efforts of three anonymous reviewers whose comments helped improve this manuscript. Start from the steady-state Fick's Law:.
A2 in terms of steady-state diffusion from a cylindrical surface with a single vessel in the center:. For diffusion from a ring of vessels, k D can be defined as:. By introducing Henry's Law of gas solubility, Eq. A1 can be expressed in terms of bubble pressure:. The ideal gas law states:. Combining Eqs. A5 and A8 :. We assume water flows only from the water bottle to the lower end of the stem segment because the upper end is plugged Fig.
As the volume of the bubble contracts an equal volume of water must flow through the vessel to the bubble surface hence we can express J v also in terms of the Hagen-Poiseuille Law:. Thus, from Eqs. A10 and A12 :. Solving for P b :. Inserting Eq. A14 into Eq. A9 and rearranging, we obtain a quadratic equation for J v that expresses how J v is limited by both k D and k h. The quadratic Eq. A15 can be solved analytically to obtain J v , which is directly correlated to the water ascent velocity by:. The quadratic solution may be approximated by Eq.
A18 because the third term in Eq.
Hemoglobin S Polymerization Effect on Water Self-Diffusion Coefficient
The maximum flow velocity observed in our study is 0. A10 and the computed pressure drop is 3 Pa Eq. Hence a very close approximation of the solution results by substituting into Eq. A9 to yield. The water ascent velocity in the embolized xylem vessels of grapevine stems refilled at 9. A17 , as shown in Fig. Plots shown in Fig. Values of the constants and parameters are shown in Table A1.
Table A1. Definition and values of constants used for the calculation of water ascent velocity z. Advanced Search. All Journals Journal. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. Wasylishen, e-mail: Roderick.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging RI Experiments 1 H MRI experiments were performed on the stems while they were refilling with water at two different xylem pressures, one at ambient pressure and the other at 9. Steady-state Bubble Model A steady-state bubble model assuming cylindrical symmetry and homogeneous vessel diameter is proposed. Model Calculations The steady-state bubble model has the advantage of having an analytical solution that allows the easy evaluation of the impact of vessel diameter and position on the rate of advance of the meniscus and explicitly quantifies the co-limiting influence of diffusion and hydraulic conductance on the physical processes occurring as a bubble dissolves.
Model Versus Reality The advantage of the model developed in the Appendix is that it predicts how fast bubbles entrapped in vessels will collapse assuming only passive physical processes are occurring i. A diffusion model for spin-spin relaxation of compartmentalized water in wood. Arbabi A, Mastikhin I V.
Magnetic susceptibility based magnetic resonance estimation of micro-bubble size for the vertically upward bubbly flow. Imaging of heterogeneous materials with a turbo spin echo single-point imaging technique. NMR imaging of materials. The refilling of embolized xylem in Pinus sylvestris L. Plant Cell Environ. Surveying the plant's world by magnetic resonance imaging. Plant J. The dynamics of embolism repair in Xylem: in vivo visualizations using high-resolution computed tomography. Plant Physiol. Brodribb T J. Xylem hydraulic physiology: the functional backbone of terrestrial plant productivity.
Callaghan P T.