Master Memory Map for the Commodore 64
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Amazon e la promozione Ritorno a scuola, le migliori offerte. This is done with pulse waveform. The different types of waveforms are discussed in the next register. In location , POKE a number in the range In location , POKE a number between See the "airplane" program in the appendix for an example of pulse waveform manipulation.
Here you can decide what kind of note you want to create, from the muted sound of a violin to the crash of ocean surf. It all depends on the type of waveform you choose. Take a look at all the bits in this location. Bits 0,4,5,6 and 7 will be used often by everyone. Bits 1, 2 and 3 are used for advanced sound techniques.
When this bit is set to 1, the attack, decay and sustain cycle begins. When it is poked with a 0, the release of the note starts. The waveforms are designed to be used one at a time. You should try to add two or more together to experiment. Bit I: This bit, when turned on, will allow the interaction of voice 1 and voice 3, blending both waveforms. To hear this, the frequency of voice three should be lower than voice 1.
Bit 2: The ring modulation effect creates the sounds of bells or gongs. It is also used with voice 3. In order to hear the ring modulation, voice 1 must use the triangle waveform and voice 3 must be set to a frequency higher than zero. Bit 4: The triangle waveform is smooth and flute-like. The sound is made by POKEing this bit and the gate bit on. You can create sounds from a piano to a clarinet. Use this to make rocket blasts to surf sounds. The attack cycle is one of 4 parts that make up any note played by an instrument.
In the attack, the volume of the note rises to its highest volume. Then it begins to 'decay' or fall in volume to lower level. Decay is the second part of a note. Some instruments, like a trumpet, have a fast attack. Others, like the violin, have a very slow attack!
J Ii F'I.. Sustain and release are the other parts of a sound. When a sound decays, the volume falls to the sustain level. The volume stays at this level until the release cycle begins.
Use bits to set the sustain level from 0 to 15, zero would be the lowest sustain, 15 is the highest sustain. The release cycle starts the fall in volume from the sustain level to zero. The release cycle follows an exponential curve that mimics the way instruments that are blown or bowed actually respond. I:" I 4, 1. The registers of voices 2 and 3 are handled in the same manner as voice 1.
The changes are marked in bold. Only numbers from 0 to 7 can be POKEd in location The filtering location at will look here to find the frequency to work with. This is the switch box that turns on and off the filter for the voices you select. To tum on the filter if "V" is the voice number:.
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You can filter more that one voice at a time by turning on the proper bits. The filter resonance area, bits , can make the voice sound either sharp or dull. There are 15 possible resonance settings. Poke a number between 0 and The volume is set the same for all voices, so if you want one voice to sound louder than another, this register will have to be rePOKEd every time you change the volume. This passes any frequency lower than the cut off set in location and The frequencies above the cut off are reduced in volume. The higher the frequency, the greater the reduction in volume.
Bit 5: The high pass filter will pass on frequencies higher than the cut off. Low frequencies will be lower in volume. All frequencies except those near the cut oil will pass through. Bit 6: The bandpass filter is the opposite of the notch reject filter. It will pass only frequencies near the cut oil. Bit 7: Voice 3 can be set so its voice can't be sent to a speaker. This is useful if you want to use the output of voice 3 in modulation with other voices. Games using paddles must use a machine language paddle routine because of the complexity of the conversion from reading these locations.
See location for a machine language game paddle routine. This location produces a random number from 0 to when voice 3 is set to the noise waveform.
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This can be added to the filter frequency, for example, to produce a range of interesting sounds. Commodore has plans for this area But until they do, this would be a great place to put machine language programs.
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This area parallels the screen memory area to This program will fill the screen with hearts, then use all the colors available on the computer. J J. This is a pretty technical area. But in this high-tech world are the controls for joysticks and paddles. See location if you wantto add these routines to the programs you write. Data port A: keyboard, joystick, paddles write keyboard column values for keyboard scan.
Moving the joystick will print out the direction you're headed on the screen. Press the fire button too. Since the keyboard is scanned, these 4 keys will act as a "mock joystick": the back arrow Run the program again and try these keys instead of the joystick. Some combinations aren't allowed, like trying to go east and west at the same time. This is the compass rose that shows which direction the joystick is pointed. Check these values for movement in your subroutines.