Biochemistry of Brain
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Biochemistry of Brain Tumors
Desmond J. Tobin a. You have access to this article.
Structural Biochemistry/Drug Reward Path In The Brain - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Please wait while we load your content Something went wrong. Researchers at the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet have shown for the first time that the active training of the working memory brings about visible changes in the number of dopamine receptors in the human brain.
The study, which is published in the journal Science , was conducted with the help of PET scanning and provides deeper insight into the complex interplay between cognition and the brain's biological structure. The neurotransmitter dopamine plays a key part in many of the brain's functions. Disruptions to the dopamine system can impair working memory, making it more difficult to remember information over a short period of time, such as when problem solving. Impaired working memory has, in its turn, proved to be a contributory factory to cognitive impairments in such disorders as ADHD and schizophrenia.
Professor Klingberg and his colleagues have previously shown that the working memory can be improved with a few weeks' intensive training. Through a collaborative project conducted under the Stockholm Brain Institute, the researchers have now taken a step further and monitored the brain using Positron Emission Tomography PET scans , and have confirmed that intensive brain training leads to a change in the number of dopamine D1 receptors in the cortex. Their results can be of significance to the development of new treatments for patients with cognitive impairments, such as those related to ADHD, stroke, chronic fatigue syndrome and ageing.
Maybe we'll be able to find new, more effective treatments that combine medication and cognitive training, in which case we're in extremely interesting territory. Use of this Web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Special Issues. Contact Us. American Journal of BioScience. Omar S.
The human brain that serves as a center of the nervous system is structurally unique. It is extraordinarily complex and highly specialized in its distinct heterogeneous anatomical regions as its function remains a great challenge. The neuron is the functional unit that depends on special anatomical and chemical connections with other units of the system. The essential biochemical connections of the nerve cell have special morphological features: synaptic contact that is mediated by chemical molecules ensures sequential propagation of neurotransmission of electrical pulses through units of the system.
The chemical energy expended in maintaining the distribution gradients of cations across cellular membranes, and the chemical neurotransmission causes an alteration in cation distribution.
The energy utilization mechanisms that underlie cations re-distribution are not peculiar to the nervous system, but they are of particular importance to neural function because the mechanisms of chemical transmission are peculiar to the nervous system. Human nerve cells have the ability to generate electrical impulses that can travel through the body without a significant loss of impulse strength. Such unique features are based on semi-permeable excitable membranes that alter permeation to small chemical molecules and to cations.
The biochemical function of the brain is demonstrated in the efficient production of energy required to accomplish the processes mentioned above, and it is essentially ATP that is stored and produced from glucose oxidation to carbon dioxide and water. Yet, the various factors that regulate glucose uptake and its utilization in the central nervous system are not well understood.
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This review is an attempt to update the rapidly expanding information on human brain neurotransmission biochemistry, though the adaptive processes of learning; cognitive performance and memory in the brain have subtle relationships. Transm, vol. Guridi, J. Dwyer, D. Glucose metabolism in the brain, International Review of Neurobiology; vol.
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Structural Biochemistry/Drug Reward Path In The Brain
Herlihy, B. Bachelard, H. Biochemistry and the Central Nervous System, 5th edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Yakovlev, P. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd. Feinstein, J. McLean , P. Neurosurg, vol. Nauta, W. LeDoux, J. Neurobiol, vol. Haier, R. Schoenemann, P.